|Chainsaw Safety & Operating Tips & Techniques|
|By The Editors of RenTrain
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Consider the type of work you have to do and select the saw accordingly.
Prepare The Saw
Preventive maintenance always pays off with chain saws. Your rented chain saw has gone through a series of thorough pre-rent checks, but you should still take the time to periodically check the condition of your saw during your rental period. Check the chain tension and lubrication system for proper function and make sure the air filter is kept clean of debris and dust.
Proper chain tension is essential to long chain life and safer cutting. All chain saws stretch with use and require frequent checking and re-adjusting. If you allow your chain to become too loose, it may derail and whip about dangerously. If you over-tighten your chain, it will bind and wear prematurely. Good lubrication helps to prolong chain life and maintain tension adjustment. Make a point to check the oil frequently and re-fill when necessary. Make sure you use the correct bar oil that comes with your rented chain saw.
Tip a good way to ensure proper tension for the chain is to place a dime between the chain and the bar. Tighten the chain until it is snug against the dime. Remove the dime and your chain saw is ready to cut at the proper tension.
Starting and Operating Techniques
When the engine fires:
NOTE: The hardness of the wood will have a major effect on how quickly it cuts.
Felling The Tree
Felling trees requires a thoughtful approach. There are many things to consider:
Felling large trees.
Follow these guidelines when felling larger trees (7-inch diameters and up).
1. Start with a two-cut, 45-degree notch on the side of the tree specific to the direction of the fall.
2. Cut the bottom of the notch first, about one third of the way through the diameter. Make the second at a 45-degree angle that meets the depth of the first cut.
3. Make the felling cut from the opposite side of the tree, approximately 2 inches higher than the floor of the notch cut on the opposite side of the tree.
4. Do not cut all the way through. Leave a hinge of about 1/8 to 1/6 of the diameter where you are cutting. This keeps the tree kicking back and upward as it falls. The size of the hinge may vary depending on when the tree starts to fall.
5. When the tree starts to fall, shut off the chain saw, set it down safely (don't throw it), and leave the area along your planned escape route. DO NOT return to the site until the tree is down and no longer moving.
6. If the tree should roll, let it. One person cannot stop or control a moving tree.
7. Some trees are very well balanced and do not fall after making the felling cut. In this case use wedges to start the fall and influence it's direction. Always use two wedges and a sledge with a face 1/3 larger than the face of the wedge.
8. Plastic wedges are safer than metal. They will not damage the saw teeth or chain. Always remove the chain saw when driving wedged into the cut. Strike the wedge carefully. Careless blows may result in popping the wedge from the cut. This may result in the tree falling backward, on you.
9. Never use an axe as the wedge or driver. Axe heads may shatter and flying pieces can cause injury.
Limbing The Tree
Follow these steps when limbing trees:
1. Before you begin limbing felled or fallen trees, make sure the fallen tree is stable and will not move as you work.
2. Examine the situation at every limb you intend to remove. Make sure the limb will not bind against the saw as you cut.
3. Whenever possible, cut limbs on the opposite side of the tree trunk from which you are working. Doing so keeps the tree trunk between you and the saw (Figure 5).
4. NEVER stand on the downhill side when removing limbs. Remember that tree trunks are circular and may roll as you remove limbs.
5. Be aware of limbs that may spring out from released tension during the cut. These limbs can cause injury.
6. Whenever possible, keep the tree limb or similar barrier between yourself and the saw blade.
7. Larger limbs may require more than one cut for safe removal from the tree trunk. Plan your cuts to eliminate the possibility of binding. Stored energy is a very real danger with chain saws and can cause a cut to pinch the blade and immobilize the saw. Use a wedge if you think binding may occur.
8. Always plan an escape route. Large limbs may roll after you remove them from the trunk.
9. When cutting large limbs and/or the tree trunk into convenient lengths (bucking), make sure to support the trunk along its entire length so it will not roll. Block or wedge the trunk in place, if needed.
10. Cut downward from the top of the trunk (overbuck) approximaetly 1/3 of the diameter and then roll the trunk over to make final cuts.
11. Use wedges to keep the cut open for logs too heavy to roll over. Always drive wedges with care to ensure they will not encounter the chain saw. Even though this should prevent pinching, always be alert to the situation. (Figure 6).
Figure 6: Stand on uphill side when cutting because log may roll.
12. If the limb or tree trunk is supported as shown in Figure 7, cut downward 1/3 of the way through the trunk and then finish by cutting upward from the underside to meet the first cut. Make sure you elevate the limb or trunk enough on the high end to allow enough room to keep the saw out of the dirt. The teeth will throw debris and cause the teeth to dull prematurely and increase wear on the chain.
13. As limbs become smaller from cutting, you might want to consider using a saw buck. Saw bucks hold small logs or limbs at a comfortable height and prevent them from rolling during cutting. (Figure 8).
Kick Back Safety Tips
Kickback is a common event when using a chainsaw. Kickback occurs when the teeth of the chain catch on something as they rotate around the tip of the blade. The teeth may have enough force to cause the blade to kick back violently toward you, hence the term "kickback." Figure 9 shows three situations that can cause kickback:
The best defense against kickback is to keep the tip guard on the chain saw. However this does limit what you can do with the tool. Most rental chains saws have a chain-brake or kickback guard. Always keep the kickback guard in place when operating your rented chain saw.
Always be alert for situations where the blade may pinch and plan accordingly. Cut branches at the base of the blade, DO NOT saw with the tip of the blade. Use a high chain speed when reinserting the blade in a cut or removing it from a cut. Keep the saw teeth sharp so they will cut; dull teeth are more likely to cause a kickback. Always cut below shoulder height, otherwise the saw is difficult to control and is too close to your face.
Figure 9. Avoiding kick-back.
Key Safety Tips
Transport and Storage of the Chain Saw
Always transport your rented chain saw in a level position with the gas cap up. Tipping will cause gasoline spillage of gasoline and create a fire hazard. DO NOT carry the saw in the passenger area of a vehicle. If an accident occurs, chain saws may fly around the passenger area, creating a hazardous situation. Most rental dealers provide a chain saw case with the saw. If they don't, make sure your saw has a chain guard in place during transport.
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